King Saud played a role of utmost importance on the regional, Arab, Islamic and international level. His eminent place in the Islamic world and his strength of character qualified him to succeed in many of his endeavors to enforce and strengthen relations.
He started his worldwide tours after finishing touring of his country's regions. He visited Arab and friendly countries for strategically and political purposes. He began his tour in (1373H/1953/1954) to Egypt followed by Kuwait, Bahrain, Jordan, Yemen and Pakistan.
He announced that his sole purpose was to "unify Muslims all over the world" so they would be like one strong body. King Saud believed in non-alignment policy, which he discussed thoroughly with Prime Minister Nehru during an official visit to India. He also strived for keeping the region free from coalitions and blocs that only serve foreign interests and thus he refused the Baghdad Pact.
Despite pressure exerted from the West, he approved upon meeting President Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Syrian President Shukry Al-Kouatly in Cairo in (Rajab 1375 H- March 1956) of making a joint statement regarding their understanding of security and defense matters, that coincided with other agreements in the financial, economical and development area.
For example, in (Rabi I 1375 H- November 1955), he granted a 16 million dollars loan to Syria for 5 years. He agreed to exchanging products and exempting agricultural products from import export license and custom duties. With the continuous Israeli assault on Jordan on (1374/1375 H- 1955), King Saud invited military leaders of Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan to Riyadh in order to discuss procedures to counter the aggression. He agreed to cover all expenses of reinforcing Jordan's National Guard and armed forces. He also adopted and supported the Algerian revolution, diplomatically and financially, when he declared it on the first of November 1954 /Safar 1375 H. King Saud made a statement inviting people to donate money for the revolution; the donations amounted to $1,200,000. The government donated one million dollars of that amount in 1376 H- 1956, and the rest of the donations where granted yearly. King Saud kept granting donations to Algeria and kept defending it until it established its independence in 1962.
Imam Ahmad of Yemen joined the Arab endeavors to unify their ranks when he signed the joint defense agreement with Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Syria. This event took place after the Imam's meeting with King Saud, President Gamal Abdel Nasser and President Shukry AI Kouatly in late Shawal (1375H April 21, 1956), following Jeddah Pact between Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
Maintaining his support. to the Arab countries, after the nationalization of the Suez Canal Company in Thul-Hijja 1375H/ July 26, 1956) although the Egyptian Government did not consult him as it did with Syria in taking that decision contrary to his expectations as a military ally, he supported Egypt in spite of the gravity of the nationalization decision and the repercussions that it could entail. He succeeded also in strengthening his relation with King Faisal the Second of Iraq after a meeting held in Dammam on (Safar 1367 H- September 20, 1956). It was followed that same month in the same place by a meeting with President Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Syrian President Shukry Al Kouatly, during which he confirmed his total support to the Egyptian stand in this crisis. When the trilateral aggression on Egypt took place on (October 29, 1956 Rabi I 1376 H) as a result of the nationalization decision, King Saud declared a general mobilization and ordered the opening of enlistment offices.
He offered also total assistance to the Egyptian government; he supervised personally the operations and welcomed Egyptian combat planes in his country for their protection. Amongst the first to enlist were Prince Fahd Bin Abdul-Aziz (Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques), Prince Sultan Bin Abdul-Aziz, Prince Salman Bin Abdul-Aziz, Prince Fahd Bin Saud and many other princes.
As means of exerting pressure on the British and French government, he used a weapon never used before, when he blocked the oil and banned all British and French tankers and other tankers carrying Saudi oil to these two countries. He also broke off relations with Britain and France.
King Saud had used the oil weapon for the first time although he was aware of the possible repercussions of such a procedure on the national economy.
He sustained his support after the war so as to remove the aftermath of the aggression. He offered generous contributions, including SR 2 million to the Egyptian Red Crescent to help victims of Port Said.
King Saud was still keen on keeping the region free of political and defense blocs that only support a superpower against another.
Despite his solid relations with the American system, on which he relied in several areas because of the oil discovery and production he seriously thought of canceling the American facilities for using Dhahran airport)as a means of exerting pressure on the United States of America and sustaining his direct endeavors to eradicate the aftermath of the action against Egypt.
These events were amongst the most important factors that made the American president Eisenhower consider King Saud as a leader on whom he can rely, they had become friends and allies. And so, he invited King Saud to undertake an official visit to the USA in (1957- 1377 H) since he believed that King Saud played a crucial role in implementing his doctrine of deterring and fighting communism in the Middle East and the Islamic countries.
Once King Saud received the invitation he convened with Presidents Gamal Abdel Nasser and Shukry Al Kouatly in Cairo in (January 1957 - 1377 H). The three leaders agreed to convince President Eisenhower to pressure the Israeli enemy to evacuate Sharm El Sheikh that overlooks the Gulf of Aqaba.
and to withdraw to the borders of the previous truce on all frontiers.
He maintained his support to the countries at war with Israel, and signed a ten-year- agreement with the Egyptian and Syrian presidents and with King Hussein of Jordan to ease the Jordanian financial burdens as a result of the Zionist aggressions. The annual Egyptian and Saudi financial assistance added up to five million Egyptian pound from each of the two countries.
He also discussed with the American President his dispute with Britain over Buraimi oasis, an oil zone between the frontiers of Saudi Arabia, Oman and Abu Dhabi and which was under the British protection. The issue of Buraimi oasis was one of the issues that were raised since the reign of his father King Abdul Aziz and was still pending. After several clashes, the case went to international arbitration under King Saud. When he accepted the American president invitation to the United States of America, he received a good welcome but the Jewish Mayor of New York, Wagner, refused to welcome the King because of his national and Islamic politics that conflict with the Jewish interests.
King Saud delivered an important speech during the banquet held by Hammarsh6ld, the Swedish UN Secretary- General in which he addressed the different aspects of the Arab complaints, in accordance with the UN charter and its powers. He invited all countries to value the charter and implement it in full; he also addressed the outcomes and repercussions of the cold war.
During his negotiations with the American president in Washington on February 2, 1957 (Jamad II 1376 H), the American President explained the principles and objectives of his doctrine known as Eisenhower Doctrine, and the effective role that he expects of him as a powerful friend of the United States of America and as an eminent Arab and Muslim leader in fighting the communist movement invading the middle east and the Islamic countries.
Within this scheme, Eisenhower offered a 25 million dollar loan to the Saudi Government on (January 24, 1957- 1376H). In return, King Saud explained that he has refused Soviet military aid to fight Britain, and that Britain's policy was what urged the
Arabs to seek the Soviet Union's help. He also stressed that non-alignment countries are benefiting from the Soviet aids more than the American allied countries are benefiting from the American aids. He considered that these aids should double if the American President wishes to succeed in his endeavors. King Saud asked Eisenhower to exert pressure on Israel to withdraw from the occupied territories and settle the Palestinian cause, and to convince France to reach a settlement regarding the independence of Algeria. On the other hand, he promised to inform the Arabs of the Eisenhower Doctrine and its purposes; and to inquire about the Arab reaction (on the official and officious levels) before making any commitments.
King Saud explained to the American President that a large balk of his country's budget was allocated to development projects and to the five-year plan, and that he needed military aids before being able to play any role expected from him in fighting communism.
And so, the American government agreed to give him a 250 million dollar loan and all kinds of land, sea and air weaponry, and to train Saudi army on how to use them.
In return, the American government was granted facilities to use Dhahran airport for five years, after which it will be returned decisively with all its equipment to the Saudi Government in (1381 H- 1962).
The outcomes of King Saud's efforts deployed during this utterly important visit to ensure the best interests of his country were positive.
Before briefing his Arab peers about the results of this visit and the Eisenhower Doctrine, King Saud visited Spain, Morocco, Tunisia, and Libya and informed them of these results.
In (Rajab 1376 H- February 1957) he met leaders of Egypt, Syria and Jordan in Cairo and informed them of Eisenhower objectives.
Under the influence to Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Syrian President Shukry Al Kouat1y King Saud wanting to support the unanimous Arab stand- decided to back up Egyptian and Syrian Presidents in their decision not contribute in the Eisenhower Doctrine.
King Saud's endeavors and sacrifices to unite Arabs and defend their causes were some of the matters to which he devoted his undivided attention. But the negative results of the Great Nations policies, the cold war, the selfishness of some Arab leaders, hindered the outcomes he was hoping for and dreaming of and to which he made so many sacrifices.
The Great Nations policies and interferences ended up in breaking up and dividing Arabs into two major blocks. That resulted in the outburst of new conflicts where each block started representing a Great Nation or a political bloc backing it. When the Republic of Iraq decided to annex Kuait in (19611381 H) under Abdul Karim Kassem, King Saud rushed to protect Kuwait and its territories by protesting in international forums.
Remaining true and faithful to the close relationship between the House of AI Sabah and the House of Al Saud, he strived for securing Kuwait borders by declaring: "any action against Kuwait is an action against Saudi Arabia". This was one of his values and approaches regarding his foreign policy.
The Saudi politics, up to date, followed the same approach in defending Arab countries rights.
On the Islamic level, he devoted his politics to the service of Islam. He was very conscience that Arab and Islamic unity would create a power that could playa major role as a political power, being united by history, a solid faith, similar past experiences, and similar contemporary and future challenges as well as common interests.
Therefore, he maintained his relations with the Islamic nations leaders, scientists and intellectuals, particularly during pilgrimage seasons. In return, Islamic nations had great regard and esteem to King Saud as an eminent Islamic and political leader on whose shoulders fell the responsibility of creating an Islamic international power. In recognition of Islamic nations expectations, he constantly visited Islamic countries and addressed formal invitations to their leaders to visit the Kingdom and thrived to strengthen bilateral and multilateral relations. He was fully aware that any path leading towards an Islamic unity, as one nation, united in its power, free in its decisions and actions, would without any doubt, require a long period of time. He was also aware that he may not live long enough to see it come true, but he believed that it was his duty and the right of Islamic nations to exert every possible effort to achieve these goals without violating his principle of respecting other countries sovereignty and of no1r-interfering in their internal affairs.